Bryan Nazor

Bryan Nazor outlines seven key steps in a typical real estate transaction

Corporate management and investing expert Bryan Nazor simplifies the real estate transaction process in just seven straightforward steps.

From making an offer to final closing, purchasing real estate, especially for the first time, can feel somewhat overwhelming. Thankfully, Bryan Nazor, president of title insurance and settlement services business Main Street Title, based in Hackensack, New Jersey, is on hand to explain in just seven straightforward steps.

"While the process invariably differs from transaction to transaction, the real estate purchase process can often be broken down into just seven steps," explains Bryan Nazor. These start, he says, with making an offer and writing up a contract.

The first step is arguably among the most important, according to Bryan Nazor, which is why it also seems so daunting for many. "Signing a legally binding real estate contract is a big first step!" says Nazor. "Any contract, however, will likely also be subject to further review, various inspections, appraisal, approval, other contingencies, and more," he goes on, "so, at this stage of the game, it’s simply to get the ball rolling."

Step two, meanwhile, Bryan Nazor further explains, relies on waiting for disclosure documents from the seller. "While awaiting the necessary disclosure documents, buyers can prepare for the third step in the process – appraisal," says the expert. This is the part of the process where the banks do their due diligence. "Your lender simply needs to ensure that everything is in order with the contract, and that the agreed price for the property is fair," Nazor explains.

What comes next, according to Bryan Nazor, is the inspection process. "This is your opportunity, as a buyer, to make any necessary inspections," he reveals. As mentioned briefly alongside step one, if anything is amiss at this stage, the buyer may still pull out of the transaction at this point if they wish. "Anything which poses an issue in regards to the sale can be raised with the seller at this point and negotiations made where necessary," Nazor adds.

Step five—loan approval—is back in the hands of the banks, reports Bryan Nazor. "Loan approval can sometimes take up to a month, but once this step is complete, a buyer is a considerable way closer to finally closing," suggests the expert.

With a loan now hopefully guaranteed, the penultimate step, Bryan Nazor explains, entails what’s known as a final walk-through. "The condition of the property at this point should be such that you’re happy to take possession as the owner," says Bryan Nazor. "Anything highlighted as posing an issue at the inspection process stage should also now be rectified," he adds.

Lastly, step seven. "The closing," says Bryan Nazor. "Closing documents may be signed at an attorney’s office or a title company," he explains.

Buyer and seller may meet again, or even for the first time, at this stage. Alternatively, signing may happen separately, according to Bryan Nazor. "Dozens of documents may need to be signed at this stage, and you’ll receive a closing statement to review, but once the funds are settled on closing day, you’ll be the proud owner of your new home effective immediately," adds Nazor, wrapping up.

Bryan Nazor

How Bryan Nazor Has Helped Main Street Title’s Success

President and Chief Operating Officer of Main Street Title, Bryan Nazor, Contributes to Company’s 30+ Years of Success.

Bryan Nazor, a graduate of Fairleigh Dickinson University with a law degree with Distinction from New York University Law School, is a member of the New Jersey and New York Bar. In January 2002, Bryan Nazor was recruited from one of New Jersey’s leading corporate law firms to join the management team of Main Street Title & Settlement Services, LLC, and he has been with the company ever since.

Main Street Title has been in business since 1988, providing title insurance and settlement services to a variety of clientele. Bryan Nazor started with the company in the position of Senior Corporate Counsel and joined the Board of Directors in September 2003, following his promotion to President and Chief Operating Officer.

Bryan Nazor helps Main Street Title in various ways and manages the day-to-day operation of the title and finance divisions of the company. He reviews and approves all commitments before issuance, interacts with clients and underwriters, and manages all of the business’s day-to-day finances. The firm, which started with only 2 employees, now employs 35 full-time professionals and is one of the New York Tri-State area’s leading title and settlement agencies, thanks to its wonderful employees and leaders such as Bryan Nazor.

Bryan Nazor works closely with Main Street Title’s Founder and Chief Executive Officer, Dominick DeCarlo and the New York division’s Vice President, Randy Foster.

Bryan Nazor‘s peers continuously recognize him for his knowledge, efficiency, and insight into successful corporate management and investing. These skills are what have helped Bryan Nazor and Main Street Title’s continuous success, including some of their notable transactions completed for Atlantic Healthcare in Atlantic City, New Jersey, for $125,000,000, Continuing Education in Kearny, New Jersey for $180,000,000, and 406-406 Broadway in New York City, New York for $7,500,000.

Besides the other day-to-day activities that Bryan Nazor helps to complete for Main Street Title, he is also involved in the firm’s residential and commercial closings. While doing this, he presides over client closings to assure that proper procedures are followed and all appropriate documents are properly signed, notarized and acknowledged. Bryan Nazor reviews and assists in the resolution of all title issues for clients.

Bryan Nazor‘s successful almost 20-year career at Main Street Title & Settlement Services, LLC has been beneficial for both parties and they will continue to grow together.

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Bryan Nazor Discusses How Mortgage Rates Are at an 8-Year Low and What That Means for Home Buyers

Real estate expert Bryan Nazor discusses how mortgage rates have reached an 8-year low and what that means for home buyers.

An article recently released by CNBC states that mortgage rates are at an 8-year low. Real estate experts, like Bryan Nazor, see this as a positive for home buyers and real estate agents alike. However, many experts are wondering why mortgage rates aren’t even lower.

“As real estate agents, we’re happy for home buyers. So many people dream of owning a home, and low mortgage rates mean that dream is made more possible,” Bryan Nazor says.

According to Mortgage News Daily, mortgage rates hit an 8-year low on Friday morning, reaching 3.23 percent as an average rate for a 30-year fixed mortgage. This fall is attributed to fears of Coronavirus, which sent the stock market tumbling. The last time mortgage rate lows were hit was in September 2012, when they briefly reached 3.15 percent.

“This is also a good time to consider refinancing an already existing mortgage,” Bryan Nazor says. “It’s not just new home buyers who enjoy the benefits of low mortgage rates.”

Real estate experts like Bryan Nazor explain that now could be a good time for homeowners to consider refinancing. However, refinancing typically costs homeowners between $3,000 and $5,000 when fees for appraisals and more are factored in.

“It’s important for homeowners to consider how much they’ll be spending in fees, so they don’t go through the time, energy, and expenses of refinancing for nothing,” Bryan Nazor says. “Although, refinancing, even if you recently purchased your home, could be financially beneficial in the long run.”

Real estate experts like Bryan Nazor explain that it doesn’t matter how long a homeowner has had a mortgage, refinancing could be a beneficial option. Nearly 2 million homeowners who took out mortgages in 2018, are prime candidates for refinancing, and nearly 1 million more who took out mortgages last year are quality candidates.

“It doesn’t matter how long you’ve had your mortgage,” Bryan Nazor says. “If refinancing works for you, you could end up paying drastically less for your home overall.”

Real estate experts like Bryan Nazor describe that now is the time for home buyers and current homeowners to take advantage of low mortgage rates. In just a few weeks, mortgage rates plummeted and quality candidates for refinancing skyrocketed, but these rates can rise just as quickly as they fall.

“Now is the time to look into your options,” Bryan Nazor says. “Act quickly, and you could save big on your new home purchase, or take the time to refinance, and you could end up paying less than you thought for your current home.”

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Bryan Nazor’s Guide to Mortgage Loan Pre-Approval

Bryan Nazor Shows You How to Get Pre-Approved for a Loan in New York

New York’s real estate market can be competitive. A great way to get an edge on other buyers before you start searching for your new home is by getting your pre-approval letter from the bank or mortgage lender.

By having your pre-approval letter, you’re showing your realtor and sellers that you’re serious, and it gives you a budget to stick to while looking for homes.

Getting pre-approved for a loan requires a lot of information and paperwork on your part, and that’s why Bryan Nazor has made it easy for you with this step-by-step guide to pre-approval.

Step One: Select the bank you want to apply for pre-approval with. Bryan Nazor recommends you speak with your realtor because he or she may suggest a mortgage company or bank they trust. Not all banks and mortgage companies are created equal. 

Side note: Remember that pre-approval and pre-qualified are not the same. Pre-approval means that the bank or loan company has done their homework and will fund your purchase. Pre-qualified is when the bank has asked you a few questions and they can “probably” loan you the money.

Step Two: Once you’ve selected a bank, get together all the documents you need to show them to get approved. 

Here is what is required in the loan approval process:

  1. Two months of pay stubs, or other proof of income
  2. Tax returns from the past two years
  3. W-2s (or 1099s, if you are a contractor) from the past two years
  4. Two months’ worth of statements for every bank, investment, savings, or retirement account you have
  5. Proof of any other assets you own
  6. Social Security number and photo ID for every borrower
  7. Two years’ worth of residential history, possibly including landlord contact info

Why does the bank need all this paperwork from you? It’s simple. Would you give a stranger a $500,000 loan without knowing or feeling very comfortable they would pay you back? That’s a lot of money they’re trusting you with. 

As inconvenient as it is, the bank needs to know if they give you this money, you have the ability to pay them back over time.

Step Three: Get pre-approved! Once you’re pre-approved for a mortgage loan, you can start looking for new homes! Plus, you’ll know what you can afford. Since you’ll be pre-approved for a certain amount of money, your realtor will help you find great homes within that budget.  

In summary, when you are ready to look for a new home 1) Find a realtor and mortgage loan officer, 2) Get pre-approved for a loan, and 3) Start searching for the right home for you and your family.

Bryan Nazor of Main Street Title and Settlement Services is a trusted source for his expertise in New York real estate, lending and home insurance. Bryan Nazor is available to answer questions about home buying or investments. Visit for more information.

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Bryan Nazor Shares Good Habits to get into 2020 as a Homeowner

Bryan Nazor shares which habits to get into (and which to break) for 2020.


Whether you’re trying to spruce up your home to put on the market, just moved into your own dream home, or simply want to begin making a positive change in the way you take care of your house, Bryan Nazor is here to help us discover which habits to begin training yourself to get into over the course of this new year. There’s never a bad time to commit yourself to keeping a happier and healthier home!


First, Bryan Nazor recommends that the shoes come off when entering the home. No matter how clean you think they might be, according to lab tests, shoes usually carry more bacteria than a toilet seat after only a week of use after coming fresh out of the box. Beyond health concerns, keeping your shoes on inside the house is a great way to scuff up the floor and track dirt between rooms. Bryan Nazor suggests placing a shoe rack near the front door, or even relegating all shoes to the vestibule if you have one. 


Another good habit to get into is being mindful of all the filters in your house. You should routinely check and replace filters in your air vents, water sources, and furnace. Staying up to date with your filters will increase the air quality of the house and prevent your air and heating systems from working overtime, thus increasing their longevity without the need for repairs. If you have pets, consider investing in special air filters that specifically help to filter out allergens caused by pet fur. As a footnote, don’t forget to clean the filter in your clothes dryer after every use. It may seem like an obvious tip, but it could easily slip your mind, and potentially start a fire. 


On a related and perhaps more important note, Bryan Nazor wants to stress how crucial it is for every homeowner to routinely check the functionality of the alarms in their house. Carbon monoxide and smoke detectors could save your life and the lives of your family one day, but only if they’re on and working. Make sure you test them at least once a month and keep batteries on hand to replace them if they’ve run out.


Don’t forget to maintain your curb appeal, Bryan Nazor advises. With all the work that comes with maintaining a house, it may become easy for the front of the house to become neglected. Try to get in the habit of regular outdoor maintenance: keep the lawn at a decent length, wash the front of the house, et cetera. This is especially true if you’re planning on putting your house up for sale any time soon. Curb appeal is the first impression, and first impressions are important.


Even if you’re used to regularly maintaining the front of your house, there’s one aspect of this job that regularly gets overlooked: the dreaded gutters. This is especially important in the fall and winter, but still worth looking into year-round. Making sure your gutters are clear can help save you from future headaches. Blocked gutter and drainage can lead to broken pipes or even water damage.

Bryan Nazor hopes these tips can help you become a more responsible homeowner in 2020 and set you up for success!

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Bryan Nazor’s Tips for Selling a Home with Pets

Bryan Nazor gives expert advice for home-sellers who care for animals.

Selling a home is already undoubtedly a stressful affair. Between pricing, setting up a time-line, home inspections, and all the other hullabaloo that comes with the decision to sell a house, you might find yourself thinking it’s not possible for this whole ordeal to become even more stressful. Pet owners will be quick to tell you otherwise.

Bryan Nazor wants you to be able to sell your home as stress-free as possible, so he’s compiled a checklist of things to be aware of when attempting to sell the home that you’ve been sharing with your fuzzy friends. The first thing, Bryan Nazor tells us, will, unfortunately, be hindsight for many: homes require additional upkeep when you’re taking care of pets.

Whether you’re watching after cats or dogs, claws can cause damage to hardwood floors. Cats especially have the habit of sharpening their claws on furniture, but you should take extra care to make sure they’re not doing the same on doorframes and/or wall corners. There are special “cat deterrent” sprays you can buy to make your cats avoid certain areas, or, Bryan Nazor informs us, you can create your own homemade mixture of water, dish soap, and lavender essential oils.

On the dog lover’s side of the fence, you’ll want to make sure your yard is up to par. Bryan Nazor warns that a yard that doesn’t look up to snuff can be a deal-breaker for someone looking to purchase. You’ll want to make sure that any holes that have been dug up are filled, any patches of grass that have died are replanted, and any damage done to the inside of the fence is repaired before even thinking about showing your yard to prospective buyers.

By taking these preventative measures, you can make the process a lot easier for yourself when the time comes to begin selling. Bryan Nazor has some tips for you once you’ve reached that point. A good, heavy cleaning is an obvious step for any homeowner looking to sell to take, but owners with pets should take extra care to remove any sources of errant fur that might be floating around. Bryan Nazor highly suggests cleaning out the air ducts in your home—you might be unpleasantly surprised to find how much of your pets end up in there.

Somewhat related to the previous point, Bryan Nazor stresses the importance of deodorizing your home. After living with pets for a while, owners become desensitized to their pets’ scents. This is fine and dandy for when you’re living in the home, but it can be a nightmare when trying to sell it. Spray, spray, and spray some more with pet-specific deodorizers and scrub the smell away. Don’t rely on Febreze-style odor maskers or candles to cover the smells: it won’t remove the problem, and in a lot of cases, will create an even more offensive odor.

Bryan Nazor’s final tip for showing your home while owning pets is for their benefit as much as the prospective buyers: relocate or hide away your pets while showing the house. While some might consider themselves animal people and be delighted at the prospect of meeting your pets, others will be put off by their presence. You also want to mitigate any possibility of strangers accidentally allowing your pet to run off!

With these tips, Bryan Nazor hopes to help your home-selling process go as easily as possible, for you, and your pets.


Bryan Nazor

2020 Real Estate Trends with Bryan Nazor

2019 is just about over, and 2020 is right around the corner. Bryan Nazor, real estate expert, sat down with us to discuss current and upcoming trends in the housing market. By looking back on the last year of the decade, Bryan Nazor helps us acknowledge patterns and trends in the U.S. housing market that will help us make educated predictions about the new year.

Modernize your home-selling strategy

Starting with the obvious, Bryan Nazor speaks to the trend that doesn’t seem to be going anywhere: “Homebuyers are using the internet, that’s just how it is. If your listing isn’t totally up to date with high-quality photos and as much information as you can possibly add, you’re at a severe disadvantage. Consider taking a high-quality video tour of the house to post on your listing.” In fact, over 80% of the millennial generation used their mobile devices to find a home in 2019, so you’ll want to ensure your listing is optimized for mobile if you want to be on top of your selling game.

Speaking of millennials, at 37%, they were the largest group of homebuyers in 2019. Keeping that in mind, it would be wise to attempt to cater to their specific wants and needs when advertising your home for sale.

According to a report by Housing Economics, over 80% of millennials seeking to purchase a home are looking for a patio, garage storage, and/or hardwood front exterior. The number one amenity millennials say they want is a built-in laundry room, at 86% of those surveyed.

The price of homes is still rising overall—but slower

Bryan Nazor informs us that while it’s true the overall price of homes is still on the incline, that growth continues to slow down as it did last year. “In 2019”, Bryan Nazor tells us, “we saw a 3.3 percent increase in the price of homes across the market. In 2018, that growth was at 5 percent, so we’ve already been seeing that growth slow down for a couple of years now.”

Indeed, experts predict that when it comes to the rising cost of homes, we can expect no more than a 2.8% increase in 2020. Growth is still growth, however, and Bryan Nazor tells us that home sellers can expect to make a tidy profit on the market in 2020 if they play their cards right.

Mortgage Interest Rates are lowering

While the prices of homes are still on the rise, mortgage interest rates are on the decline. Bryan Nazor explains: “Mortgage interest rates are hard to predict with any certainty too far in the future, even for the experts. However, what we saw last year could be a very promising trend moving into 2020.”

Mortgage interest rates have been lowering overall over the course of 2019, with a large number of common types of loans seeing rates below 4%. Bryan Nazor predicts that this trend will continue into the new year, with mortgage interest rates hovering between 3 and 4 percent for common loans.

This is great news for the market, Bryan Nazor tells us, because it will help encourage more buyers to take the leap into committing to a home.

Looking forward to 2020

Overall, 2020 is shaping up to be another exciting year for the housing market, if current trends continue. Whether you’re buying or selling, this might be the perfect time to dive into the market.

Bryan Nazor

Bryan Nazor Invaluable Holiday Real Estate Advice

To deck the halls, or not? Bryan Nazor weighs the pros and cons when trying to sell over the holidays.


Attempting to sell your house over the holidays can be a grab bag of positives and negatives. Will you filter out all the “non-serious” buyers, leaving you with an excellent selection, or will your listing be ignored with the rush of the holidays? 

Bryan Nazor, a real estate expert, weighs in with his own advice about selling your home over the holidays.  First, let’s take a look at some of the pros and cons of deciding to sell over the holidays.


Bryan Nazor’s pros and cons for selling over the holidays


The first, and most obvious, pro of deciding to sell over the holidays, is less competition. “You might find yourself benefiting greatly from reduced competition in the market around this time of year,” Bryan Nazor tells us.


However, there is a catch to this supposed positive: there aren’t just fewer sellers during the holidays – there are also fewer buyers. “A large part of it,” Bryan Nazor tells us, “is whether or not your home is in an area that experiences heavy snowfall. People are a lot less inclined to go looking for houses when there is five feet of snow on the ground.”


It still might be worth leaving your home on the market over the holidays if it’s in a tough-to-sell area. If your home would normally be at the bottom of the showing list, you might find your home being showcased more often during the holiday season when other homes are taken off the market.


The negatives to leaving your listing up?  The afore-mentioned smaller pool of buyers is definitely a potential setback, according to Bryan Nazor. “There are many reasons you may not want to leave your listing up over the holidays,” he tells us.


For one, taking your listing down during the holidays, then re-listing it after the new year is a great way to drum up some renewed interest and exposure. Since your listing will be treated as “new”, you’ll have a lot more eyes on it than if you let it be.


Bryan Nazor brings up another good point: “The holidays are known for being the busiest time of the year for a million other reasons – adding short notice home showings and constant sale-worthy upkeep to your house on top of that is enough to stretch anyone thin.”


Bryan Nazor’s tips for selling over the holidays


If you still have your heart set on selling, Bryan Nazor has got a few pieces of advice for you.

For one, you’ll want to keep your holiday decorations minimal and classy. An overdone house with lights everywhere and decorations covering everything may properly showcase your holiday spirit, but it’s hard to properly showcase your house when it’s completely covered.


This goes for the inside as well. You’ll want to avoid covering up any important aspects of your living areas too much, such as fireplaces, doorways, windows, and so on.


You’ll want to keep a sharp eye open for committed buyers. Some might see your listing up during the holiday season and get the wrong idea – when buyers smell desperation, they’re oftentimes more liable to suggest a lowball offer. Stand your ground and seek out those who are interested in the true value of your home.


In the end, there’s no one straight catch-all answer to whether or not you should commit to selling over the holidays – you’ll have to weigh the pros and cons carefully, inspect your own unique situation, and make the right calls depending on what you feel is the best choice. The most important bit of advice? “Enjoy your holidays!” Bryan Nazor tells us, “If you don’t sell this year, a new year is right around the corner.”

Flood Insurance and You: Bryan Nazor, Real Estate Expert, Explains

Title and real estate closing expert Bryan Nazor knows there’s a lot that goes into purchasing a new home, including making sure you’re properly covered on all accounts when it comes to insurance. It may seem like simple common sense – buy insurance so you can have peace of mind. However, there are details concerning flood insurance you may not have taken into account. Bryan Nazor fills us in:

One of the more common misconceptions about flood insurance, according to Bryan Nazor, is that it will be included in homeowner’s insurance. While there are some specialized cases or offers out there that would make this true, flood insurance is by and large its own separate policy.

Another common misconception about flooding, in general, is that if you don’t live near a large body of water, you can probably skip on the flood insurance. This can be a dangerous mistake to make! Bryan Nazor informs us: while it’s true some areas are more susceptible to flooding – if you live on the New Jersey shore, for example – there is no space truly safe from flooding.

Looking at the statistics, twenty percent of all flood insurance claims come from areas that have been deemed low to moderate risk of flooding. In addition to this, according to FEMA, a full ninety percent of natural disasters in the US include flooding in some form. The picture that this information paints is clear: better safe than sorry.

Flood insurance isn’t difficult to purchase – you can easily directly purchase a flood insurance policy from any insurance professional. If you neglect it, you may find yourself taking out multiple loans to cover the costs of damages if the unthinkable happens.

Keep in mind that most policies don’t go into effect until thirty days after your initial purchase, so try not to delay if you can help it. Waiting until the last minute is not a recommended strategy when it comes to protecting your home.

The Cost of Flood Insurance

Bryan Nazor advises us that there are a few different factors that go into determining the price of your flood insurance. One of the largest factors is which flood zone your home is located in. FEMA broadly defines three different flood zones: high, moderate, and low-risk.

High-risk zones self-explanatory: these are areas in which you’re most likely to experience flooding. There are a variety of classifications of high-risk flood zones, with the general labels “A” and “V”.

“A” flood zones are further classified into six sub-categories, all with a common factor. Generally, there is at least a one percent chance of flooding to occur annually in these areas. The notable exception to this rule is the “AR” zone classification; these zones are areas that are only temporarily at risk – for example, an area where a dam or levee may be under repair.

“V” flood zones are similar to “A” flood zones with one notable exception: these areas are located beachfront or in coastal areas, and are considered the most hazardous and potentially dangerous. It is federally required for flood insurance to be purchased in these zones.

Moderate to low-risk zones may not require at the federal level for you to purchase flood insurance, but Bryan Nazor advises us that floods can happen anywhere. It’s everyone’s responsibility to, at the very least, research your flood insurance options.

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The Ins and Outs of Title Insurance and Why You Need It, According to Bryan Nazor

The Scoop on Title Insurance and Its Benefits From Title and Real Estate Closing Expert Bryan Nazor  


Title insurance on a property is confusing to many, said Bryan Nazor, title and real estate closing expert. Is title insurance even necessary? What is it for? What could happen if I don’t have it? These are the questions you may be asking yourself and that Bryan Nazor said he hears all the time at Main Street Title, his New Jersey company. 


“Title insurance is basically proof that the title that shows ownership of a property is legitimate,” Bryan Nazor explained. “It protects against claims against the title.” 


Title insurance is something you certainly do not want to skip when acquiring a new property, Bryan Nazor said. The history of a property can be uncertain and the only way to protect against claims is by having good title insurance. Buyers should expect to buy a title insurance at a one-time premium at the close of the escrow, according to Bryan Nazor. 


 Title insurance is not just used in the United States, Bryan Nazor said. Other countries use it as protection against claims on a property. These countries include Australia, the United Kingdom, China and Canada, among others. So even if the property you purchase is not in the United States, you should still look into purchasing a title insurance policy, Bryan Nazor said. 


Additionally, title insurance is for residential and commercial properties alike. Bryan Nazor said he has worked with home owners refinancing their homes, buyers, lenders, investors, attorneys, builders, developers, mortgage brokers and realtors. There are all kinds of real estate transactions that can benefit from title insurance, Bryan Nazor said. He said it is important to find a title and real estate closing expert in your area to talk you through your options when it comes to an insurance policy. 


When you hire a title and real estate expert like Bryan Nazor to give you a clean property title, a lot of work goes on behind the scenes. These experts search public records to make sure you can receive a clean property title. This includes visiting clerks of courts and register of deeds to become aware of any special levies, taxes, mortgages or other judgements on the property in question. This process is thorough and ensures a clean property title can be received, Bryan Nazor said. 


Title insurance comes in handy in many situations, Bryan Nazor said. Some of examples include forged deeds, owner impersonation, wills not probated, missing heirs, falsified records, birth or adoption after date of will, fabricated powers of attorney and confusion from similarity of names. Title insurance policies also can cover fraud, undisclosed heirs, liens against the property, spousal claims and forgery.